Sunday, May 24, 2020

Talking About Your Period in French

This happens to every woman. Yet, books are quite shy when it comes to this vocabulary, a skill that we thought could be useful for women traveling to France. First, let’s explore some French expressions to say to have your period. Avoir Ses Rà ¨gles The most common way to say to menstruate is â€Å"avoir ses rà ¨gles†. Les rà ¨gles is a feminine plural word.   Avoir des rà ¨gles douloureuses: to have painful periodAvoir des crampes menstruelles: to have menstrual crampsLes dernià ¨res rà ¨gles: last menstrual periodLe dà ©but / la fin des rà ¨gles: beginning/end of the periodUn cycle d’ovulation: menstrual cycle Note that the word les rà ¨gles is always feminine plural when used for menstruation. Une rà ¨gle is a rule or a ruler (a plastic piece used to draw lines). The context will make it clear which one you are talking about. Tu as tes rà ¨gles: Do you have your period?Tu as une rà ¨gle: Do you have a ruler? Être Indisposà ©e This means to be indisposed, unwell. But it the chosen expression to say in a subtle way to you have your period. Cette jeune fille ne peut pas aller à   la piscine, elle est indisposà ©e.This young girl cannot go to the swimming pool, she is indisposed. Avoir Ses Ragnagnas I have no idea where this one comes from, but â€Å"ragnagnas† sounds like someone complaining, protesting†¦ which women often do when they menstruate. So that would be my personal interpretation of the expression! Les Anglais ont Dà ©barquà © Definitely one of the strangest French idiom out there. It translates as â€Å"The English have landed† (from a boat). So, what is the relation between English and menstruating? Well, this expression dates back to Napoleon and the British army, then called the redcoats. Go figure! Although this expression is somewhat old-fashioned, it is still used, often kind of as a joke. Dà ©solà ©e, je nai vraiment pas envie daller faire cette randonnà ©e. Je ne me sens pas trà ¨s bien... enfin, pour tout te dire, les anglais ont dà ©barquà ©. Bref, jai mes ragnagnas, jai des crampes et je nai quune envie : rester au lit!Sorry, I really dont feel like going on this hike. I dont feel very well... Well, to tell you everything, Aunt Flo called. In other words, Code Red, I have cramps and I just want one thing: stay in bed! French Vocabulary for Period Products Les protections hygià ©niques: sanitary protectionsUn tampon: a tamponAvec/sans applicateur: with/without applicatorUne serviette hygià ©nique: a sanitary pad / a pantylinerAvec ailettes: with wingsUne coupe menstruelle: a menstrual cupSaigner: to bleedUn saignement: a bleedingUne tà ¢che: a spot Cultural Note About Menstrual Pain As in many countries, speaking about ones period is not considered a proper conversation. French women seldom disclose to girlfriends that they are on their period or discuss their menstrual pains. We would just say that we are tired. Of course, everybody is different.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Spanish Verbs Comprender vs. Entender

Both comprender and entender are usually translated as to understand, and in many cases — in fact, most of the time — you can use them interchangeably. However, there are some subtle differences in how they may come across. Differences Between Entender and Comprender The main difference between the two verbs when they mean to understand can be seen in the saying Te entiendo, pero no te comprendo, which obviously makes little sense if you try translating it as I understand you, but I dont understand you. Perhaps a better way of understanding this sentence would be something like I understand the words youre saying but I dont understand what you mean. Comprender, then, can suggest a deeper type of understanding. If you speak with an accent and want to know if youre getting your words across, for example, you might ask:  ¿Me entiendes? But if what youre looking for is whether the listener understands the implications of what youre saying, the question  ¿Me comprendes? may be more appropriate. In real life, though, these differences may not be all that distinct, and you may hear one verb used when the above guidelines suggest using the other. For example, I know exactly what you mean could be translated as either Te comprendo perfectamente or Te entiendo perfectamente (the latter appears to be more common) and the same goes for Nadie me comprende and Nadie me entiende for Nobody understands me. In other words, as a Spanish student you neednt worry too much about which verb to use in most contexts. As you hear and use the two verbs, youll pick up on whatever subtle differences exist between them in your locality. Note that comprender can also have the meanings to cover, to enclose or to include (and thus have a meaning related to the English word comprehensive rather than to comprehend, both of which come from the same Latin source). Example: El territorio de la provincia comprende tres regiones bien diferenciadas. (The provincial territory includes three distinctive regions.)  Entiende cannot be substituted in this sentence. Sample Sentences Using Entender and Comprender Here are examples of these two verbs in use: Si yo quiero comprender a alguien, no puedo condenarlo; debo observarlo, estudiarlo. (If I want to understand someone, I cant judge him; I need to observe him, study him.)Todavà ­a no puedo entender de lo que se me acusa. (I still cant understand what Im being accused of.)Mis padres comprendà ­an que esta era mi personalidad y no trataron de cambiar mi modo de ser. (My parents understood that that was my personality and didnt try to change how I was.)Si hubiera entendido el frà ­o que iba a sentir, no me hubiera depilado. (If I had understood how cold it would feel, I wouldnt have shaved.)Comprendemos perfectamente las dificultades y errores que se cometen en una lucha tan larga. (We understand perfectly the difficulties and mistakes that are made in such a grand struggle.)La pelà ­cula la entendà ­ a medias; hay ciertas cosas que se escapaban a mi comprensià ³n. (I didnt completely understand the movie; there are certain things that eluded my understanding.)Solo los sabios lo comprenderà ¡n. (Only the wise will understand it.)Creo que son pocas las personas que lo entienden como realmente es. (I believe that few are the people who understand it as it really is.) Using Entender With Prefixes Entender, although not comprender, can be combined with prefixes to form several other verbs, although none are in widespread use. Malentender can be used for to misunderstand, although both entender mal and misinterpretar are more common. Malentendà ­ algo y me ayudaste a entenderlo. (I misunderstood something and you helped me to understand it.)Es una broma que muchos malentendieron. (It is a joke that many misunderstood.) Desentenderse can be used to refer to the avoiding of understanding, intentionally or otherwise. Poco a poco me desentendà ­ de las partituras y empecà © a improvisar. (Little by little I ignored the sheet music and began to improvise.)Nuestros là ­deres se desentienden del nuevo escà ¡ndalo econà ³mico. (Our leaders are looking the other way from the new economic scandal.) Sobrentender (sometimes spelled sobreentender) refers to complete understanding. Sobrentiendo que no soy adicto y que no he substituido una droga por otra. (I know full well I am not an addict and that I havent substituted one drug for another.)Espero que sobrentiendas el costo de tus acciones. (I hope you completely understand the cost of your actions.)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Electrical and Electronics Free Essays

This effect can be used to build an electric power generator, such as the one described in this paper. A coil attached to a shaft spins within the magnetic field ofa â€Å"U† shaped magnet. Three conveniently designed conductive disks allow the electrical load of the generator to be fed either with alternating current or direct current. We will write a custom essay sample on Electrical and Electronics or any similar topic only for you Order Now the loop terminals is sinusoidal with zero mean value (Fig. 2). Its frequency is equal to the number of revolutions per second executed by the loop. Each terminal of the loop is connected to a metallic ring. The contacts with rings are made by means of fixed brushes. If the brushes are onnected to an electrical load, an alternating current will be established in the circuit. Keywords. Alternating Current, Direct Current, Generator, Magnetic Field, Induced Voltage. 1. Introduction Although diverse forms of energy (mechanical, thermal, chemical etc. ) can be converted into electrical energy, the expression electric generator is reserved, in the industry, energy into electrical energy. The generators that produce direct current (DC) are called dynamos and the ones that produce alternating current (AC) are called alternators. The device described in this paper is a generator capable of supplying an electrical load ith the desired type of current: alternating current or direct current. s AC output Figure 1. AC generator. 2. AC generator principle of operation. Figure 1 illustrates the principle of operation of an AC generator. A wire loop rotates within the magnetic field generated by a magnet, which induces an AC voltage between the loop terminals. The periodic change of the voltage polarity is due to the change of the position of the coil relatively to the magnetic poles. The amplitude of the voltage depends on the magnetic field strength and is also directly proportional to the rotating speed [1, 2, 3, 4]. If he magnetic field is uniform and the rotation speed is constant, the voltage induced between Figure 2. AC generator output. 3. DC generator principle of operation. The described AC generator may be transformed into a DC generator, substituting the contact rings by a mechanical switch. As illustrated on Fig. 3, a simple switch may be done with a metal ring divided into two isolated halves (segments), which are mounted in the axis. This type of commutator is denominated collector. segment of the collector. When the loop rotates, an AC voltage is induced in the coil, exactly as in the AC generator. But, before reaching the oad, the induced voltage is transformed into a DC voltage by the collector (Fig. 4), which works as a mechanical rectifier. The contact segments of the collector move to a different brush each half turn of the loop, keeping a unidirectional current flowing through the electrical load of the circuit [1]. The rotation speed has to be well determined so that the final result is the expected one. As stated before, the rotation speed influences the induced voltage amplitude and frequency. â€Å"U† shaped strong permanent magnet, shown in Fig. 6. The most challenging part to build was a contact rings and collector unit (Fig. 7). It was ade of three printed circuit board disks, coaxially mounted on the rotating axis. The two smaller disks were kept with their entire conductive layer and were intended to supply the generated AC voltage. The conductive layer of the larger disk was cut into two halves, in order to implement the collector, which mechanically rectifies the generated AC voltage. Figure 5. Coil with iron core. DC output Figure 3. DC generator. Figure 6. Permanent magnet used to induce a voltage in the coil. Figure 4. DC generator output. 4. Generator’ description Instead of a simple loop, an iron core coil with 1241 turns of O,16mm2 varnished copper ire was used. The iron core and its windings are shown in Fig. 5. The magnetic field used to induce a voltage between the coil terminals was provided by a Figure 7. Three coaxial printed circuit board disks with coil on top. 45 Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 illustrate how the rings and collector unit was built in a more comprehensive way. In Fig. 8, a cross-section of this unit is shown, revealing how electrical connections were made: one terminal of the coil was connected to one of the smaller disks and to one of the halves of the larger disk (collector); the other terminal was connected to the other smaller disk and to the ther half of the larger one. Fig. 9 shows a panoramic view of the assembly and the generator outputs responsible electrical load. In order to make the generator operate properly, the DC output brushes positions must be displaced by 1800 from each other. The AC output brushes may be placed anywhere on the respective disks. coil Copper wire Insulator Copper Solder Figure 8. Connecting the coil to the three coaxial printed circuit board disks. power could be easily measured, some sort of mechanical power meter was needed and it was not available. There are always mechanical and electrical power losses in the process of ransforming mechanical energy into electric energy. Mechanical losses may be reduced by lubricating friction points. The generator was put to rotate at 3000RPM; the measured induced voltage was 1,2V peak-topeak, with a 50Hz frequency. . Conclusions Spinning a wire loop within a uniform magnetic field in a convenient fashion induces a voltage between the loop terminals. Rotation speed influences the induced voltage amplitude and frequency. If an electrical load is connected to the loop terminals, a current will be established in the circuit. The current generated by a basic electrical generator is alternating current. If the generator s intended to supply direct current, it must have a device working as a mechanical rectifier: the collector. A device capable of generating both AC voltage and DC voltage has been presented. A coil attached to a shaft spins within the magnetic field ofa â€Å"U† shaped magnet. Three conveniently designed conductive disks allow either with alternating current or direct current. This device is very useful to illustrate the principles of electrical energy generation. It also shows the main similarities and differences between AC and DC generators: the working principle is the same for both machines, but the AC generator has contact rings and the DC enerator has a collector. How to cite Electrical and Electronics, Papers

Electrical and Electronics Free Essays

This effect can be used to build an electric power generator, such as the one described in this paper. A coil attached to a shaft spins within the magnetic field ofa â€Å"U† shaped magnet. Three conveniently designed conductive disks allow the electrical load of the generator to be fed either with alternating current or direct current. We will write a custom essay sample on Electrical and Electronics or any similar topic only for you Order Now the loop terminals is sinusoidal with zero mean value (Fig. 2). Its frequency is equal to the number of revolutions per second executed by the loop. Each terminal of the loop is connected to a metallic ring. The contacts with rings are made by means of fixed brushes. If the brushes are onnected to an electrical load, an alternating current will be established in the circuit. Keywords. Alternating Current, Direct Current, Generator, Magnetic Field, Induced Voltage. 1. Introduction Although diverse forms of energy (mechanical, thermal, chemical etc. ) can be converted into electrical energy, the expression electric generator is reserved, in the industry, energy into electrical energy. The generators that produce direct current (DC) are called dynamos and the ones that produce alternating current (AC) are called alternators. The device described in this paper is a generator capable of supplying an electrical load ith the desired type of current: alternating current or direct current. s AC output Figure 1. AC generator. 2. AC generator principle of operation. Figure 1 illustrates the principle of operation of an AC generator. A wire loop rotates within the magnetic field generated by a magnet, which induces an AC voltage between the loop terminals. The periodic change of the voltage polarity is due to the change of the position of the coil relatively to the magnetic poles. The amplitude of the voltage depends on the magnetic field strength and is also directly proportional to the rotating speed [1, 2, 3, 4]. If he magnetic field is uniform and the rotation speed is constant, the voltage induced between Figure 2. AC generator output. 3. DC generator principle of operation. The described AC generator may be transformed into a DC generator, substituting the contact rings by a mechanical switch. As illustrated on Fig. 3, a simple switch may be done with a metal ring divided into two isolated halves (segments), which are mounted in the axis. This type of commutator is denominated collector. segment of the collector. When the loop rotates, an AC voltage is induced in the coil, exactly as in the AC generator. But, before reaching the oad, the induced voltage is transformed into a DC voltage by the collector (Fig. 4), which works as a mechanical rectifier. The contact segments of the collector move to a different brush each half turn of the loop, keeping a unidirectional current flowing through the electrical load of the circuit [1]. The rotation speed has to be well determined so that the final result is the expected one. As stated before, the rotation speed influences the induced voltage amplitude and frequency. â€Å"U† shaped strong permanent magnet, shown in Fig. 6. The most challenging part to build was a contact rings and collector unit (Fig. 7). It was ade of three printed circuit board disks, coaxially mounted on the rotating axis. The two smaller disks were kept with their entire conductive layer and were intended to supply the generated AC voltage. The conductive layer of the larger disk was cut into two halves, in order to implement the collector, which mechanically rectifies the generated AC voltage. Figure 5. Coil with iron core. DC output Figure 3. DC generator. Figure 6. Permanent magnet used to induce a voltage in the coil. Figure 4. DC generator output. 4. Generator’ description Instead of a simple loop, an iron core coil with 1241 turns of O,16mm2 varnished copper ire was used. The iron core and its windings are shown in Fig. 5. The magnetic field used to induce a voltage between the coil terminals was provided by a Figure 7. Three coaxial printed circuit board disks with coil on top. 45 Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 illustrate how the rings and collector unit was built in a more comprehensive way. In Fig. 8, a cross-section of this unit is shown, revealing how electrical connections were made: one terminal of the coil was connected to one of the smaller disks and to one of the halves of the larger disk (collector); the other terminal was connected to the other smaller disk and to the ther half of the larger one. Fig. 9 shows a panoramic view of the assembly and the generator outputs responsible electrical load. In order to make the generator operate properly, the DC output brushes positions must be displaced by 1800 from each other. The AC output brushes may be placed anywhere on the respective disks. coil Copper wire Insulator Copper Solder Figure 8. Connecting the coil to the three coaxial printed circuit board disks. power could be easily measured, some sort of mechanical power meter was needed and it was not available. There are always mechanical and electrical power losses in the process of ransforming mechanical energy into electric energy. Mechanical losses may be reduced by lubricating friction points. The generator was put to rotate at 3000RPM; the measured induced voltage was 1,2V peak-topeak, with a 50Hz frequency. . Conclusions Spinning a wire loop within a uniform magnetic field in a convenient fashion induces a voltage between the loop terminals. Rotation speed influences the induced voltage amplitude and frequency. If an electrical load is connected to the loop terminals, a current will be established in the circuit. The current generated by a basic electrical generator is alternating current. If the generator s intended to supply direct current, it must have a device working as a mechanical rectifier: the collector. A device capable of generating both AC voltage and DC voltage has been presented. A coil attached to a shaft spins within the magnetic field ofa â€Å"U† shaped magnet. Three conveniently designed conductive disks allow either with alternating current or direct current. This device is very useful to illustrate the principles of electrical energy generation. It also shows the main similarities and differences between AC and DC generators: the working principle is the same for both machines, but the AC generator has contact rings and the DC enerator has a collector. How to cite Electrical and Electronics, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Impacts of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perceptions free essay sample

Global Journal of Management and Business Research Volume 11 Issue 7 Version 1. 0 July 2011 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) Print ISSN: 0975-5853 Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception By Mohsin Shakeel, Muhammad Mazhar Khan University of Lahore Islamabad Campus Pakistan Abstracts Purpose : Guerilla marketing is one of the growing marketing techniques which are used in advertising industry. Stealth marketing is also a most popular technique use in the Guerilla marketing. There are number of techniques are used in stealth marketing in which one technique, celebrity marketing is in practice mostly by the market leaders. This paper seeks to find the significant effect of the Guerilla marketing on the consumer perception. Methodology : After reviewing the literature of celebrity marketing and consumer perception, we develop a questionnaire for the population of 300 graduate and post graduates’ students of universities and colleges in Islamabad and we select a random sample of 60 students. We take the consumer perception as a dependent variable and celebrity marketing as an independent variable. We use the simple regression model to check the significant effect of celebrity marketing on consumer perception. For the study we get the value of â€Å"R† is 0. 945. Findings : The value of â€Å"R† which is 0. 945 which shows that celebrity marketing has a significant effect on consumer perception. Originality/ Value : This paper design on quantitative analysis to examine in what way celebrity marketing which is used in ad industry in cellular industry in Pakistan effectively used in molding the perception of a consumer in reaching buying decision. Keywords : Guerilla marketing, Celebrity marketing, Advertising, Consumer perception GJMBR-A Classification : JEL Code: M31 Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception Strictly as per the compliance and regulations of:  © 2011 . Mohsin Shakeel, Muhammad Mazhar Khan. This is a research/review paper, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3. 0 Unported License http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc/3. /), permitting all noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception Abstract Purpose : Guerilla marketing is one of the growing marketing techniques which are used in advertising industry. Stealth marketing is also a most popular technique use in the Guerilla marketing. There are number of techniques are used in stealth marketing in which one technique, celebrity marketing is in practice mostly by the market leaders. This paper seeks to find the significant effect of the Guerilla marketing on the consumer perception. Methodology : After reviewing the literature of celebrity marketing and consumer perception, we develop a questionnaire for the population of 300 graduate and post graduates’ students of universities and colleges in Islamabad and we select a random sample of 60 students. We take the consumer perception as a dependent variable and celebrity marketing as an independent variable. We use the simple regression model to check the significant effect of celebrity marketing on consumer perception. For the study we get the value of â€Å"R† is 0. 945. Findings : The value of â€Å"R† which is 0. 945 which shows that celebrity marketing has a significant effect on consumer perception. Originality/ Value : This paper design on quantitative analysis to examine in what way celebrity marketing which is used in ad industry in cellular industry in Pakistan effectively used in molding the perception of a consumer in reaching buying decision Keywords : Guerilla marketing, Celebrity marketing, Advertising, Consumer perception I. n the scientific era, no one can be left without experiencing the influence of marketing communication has on our lives. The marketing communication we mean the range of tools marketers using in order to attract the attention of the consumer. These tools have many means of promotion such as advertising through television, radio, newspapers and billboards, direct marketing and personal relations (Miller, 1993). Combined these promotion tools are use to sent a strangler massage to improve the result for the company employing advertising agencies. Marketer introducing combining of the different promotions was as Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) which allows one companies marketing campaign fully Author : M. S Scholar the University of Lahore Islamabad Campus Pakistan. E-mail : [emailprotected] com Cell: 0092-3335744557. Author ? : M. S Scholar the University of Lahore Islamabad Campus Pakistan. E-mail: [emailprotected] com Cell: 0092-345-5077207. I Introduction integrated and that the single message trying to sent the public will not be confusing by the other section of the organization (Duncan, 2002). By using IMC practices do not hit inadequately the potential consumer groups but since the viewer are bombarded with increasingly advertising messages, they thought that they are persuaded with information foe selling some thing so they became on defended policies. These consumers are c alled as generation Y are millennial (Yin, 2003; Griffin 2002; Syrett Lammiman, 2003). Generation Y’s are those whom are born between 1977-1994 (Paul, 2001). Therefore companies have to rethink new and special measures to get welcome for commercial messages with open arms by the Gen Y (Paul, 2002). In resulting the companies have to reshape their techniques and the increase he quality of their offerings in order to avoid negative word of mouth (Livenson, 1998). Word of Mouth (VoM) stands for when a friend tells a friend that tells a friend about the new product that he had bought last weekend (Vranica 2005). According to Chura and Fernando (2004), marketers are aiming for VoM that is planned and executed by people in order to spread the â€Å"Buzz†. Yen (2003) states that, Gen Y is approachable through VoM which is considered an alternative way of promoting which leads us to an alternative marketing and promotional approach. Guerrilla Marketing to be a well known marketing approach that applies more alternative methods changing the ways in which conventional marketing media such as advertising, direct marketing, PR and others alike executed (Levinson, 1998). nder the cover of Guerilla Marketing an approach known as under cover marketing are stealth marketing is used as performed on face to face basis and does not appear to be a marketing too (Karolina Stenberg Sabina Parcic, 2005). The existing the Undercover Marketing (UCM) is not as spread are as accepted through out the world, therefore it is largely unknown how public as well as marketer / advertiser react when faced with the se method and how application of UCM would practically function (Karolina Stenberg Sabina Parcic, 2005). The generation Y is the (Paul,2001)generation that has born in mid 1980’s decade . which are bombarded heavily increasing number of advertising massages which are turn to high their level of irritation  © 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US) Global Journal of Management and Business Research Volume XI Issue VII Version I July 2011 47 Mohsin Shakeel , Muhammad Mazhar Khan ? ? Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception due to which they stand against to give the defense that these massages are trying to sale the products. This is the basic reason which is faced by the marketers how to approach the generation Y so that they started to paying attention on these massages which is the only way that the presentation of the massages should not be a conventional way. This need pressured the marketers to start boosting the unconventional way for marketing which is called undercover marketing (stalls marketing) (kaikatikaikikati, 2004) The key objective of this type of marketing is to grasp the targeted people for the sale product without 48 letting them know that it is the company’s marketing campaign (Kaikati Kaikati, 2004). Another main reason for the marketer to divert their attention in this kind of marketing that it is very hard to focus on potential customers because of fragmentation, due to which these customers divided in to very small number of groups in the result of ever increasing TV channels, radio stations and publications (Kaikati Kaikati, 2004). Moreover it is reveled from the researches 7. 7 % young males are not watching the prime time TV then year ago. The advent of the other technologies like personal television recorders and digital video recorders etc. roviding the facility to the consumers that he may skip or eliminate the commercials have become the more threatening for conventional marketing due to which the marketer are diverted to under cover marketing because it is much difficult for the potential customer convincing to sit through the TV commercials. It is also supported by the different studies which showed that more than 50% marketer showed the intentions in using non conve ntional method like product placement deals and program sponsorship (Kaikati Kaikati, 2004). The messages can be delivered in different methods through celebrity or trendsetters in which they participated with physical appearance. Thus the markers are looking to move for away from the conventional marketing which is depend on 30 seconds commercials that elaborated the importance of the stealth marketing techniques that are now becoming the emerging issue for marketing way in conventional marketing which is becoming order and order to reach the target marketing (Kaikati Kaikati, 2004). The growing popularity of under cover marketing or stealth marketing drives from three factors that contributed the dimension effectiveness of television advertising and other traditional techniques, the first factor about the growing criticism of the advertising industry. The second factor is about cost effectiveness of stealth campaigns is implicit and recommendation to embrace non-traditional techniques. The third factor is about the need to explore different type of stealth marketing techn iques as viable alternatives to reach and increasing fragmented audience† (Kaikati Kaikati, 2004). Stealth marketing techniques can be used to be Global Journal of Management and Business Research gain the competitive advantage there are six main types i. e. Viral marketing, brand pushers, celebrity marketing (endorsement), and bait- and – tease marketing, video game marketing and pop and rap music marketing. As these marketing techniques are based on many disguises based and it is to note worthy that in these marketing techniques some of them are stealthier in nature more than others that is why these are represented a useful alternative technique to conventional marketing techniques (Kaikati Kaikati, 2004). As per extent to the Pakistan cellular industry is now using stealth marketing techniques rather than using conventional commercials in which they are considered one of the technique which is celebrity marketing is more prominent. â€Å"The celebrity endorsement (marketing) is one of the most accepted kind of the marketing which is now most practicable in promotion of products and services so the use of this in commercial is not one way process, therefore, as celebrities are becoming in there own right with there own value existing of the minds of there audiences in a similar way to corporate and consumer brands† (Seno Lukas, 2007). Celebrity endorsement conventionally focused on characteristically source of the endorser along with transfer of meanings between endorser to the endorse products and brands (Alina Hellomen- Knight Leila Hurmerinta, 1998) Media has changed the market conditions and influences and has the ability to change the perception and behavior in strong way that traditional analytical tools for studying the market are insufficient (Nilson 1995). The consumer perception and behavior is one of the most widely studied subjects which grasped the constructs in marketing. In last two decades, almost 20,000 academic articles have been published on this particular topic (cf. Peterson Wlison 1992). II. Volume XI Issue VII Version I July 2011 Research Objective Gaining competitive edge in terms of marketing is one of the utmost objectives, which companies are focusing on, as a result to change psychological and social perception of the society. Reaching the customers and prospects in a right way with a definitive roadmap is a succession key in this regard. Aim of this dissertation is to find out the effectiveness of the unconventional tools or techniques. In these tools UCM is one of the most popular tools which are being used to attract the potential consumers and hence changing their perception. Object of this paper is to find out the impact of Guerilla marketing on consumer perception through one of its technique called Celebrity marketing or endorsement. III. Literature Review Marketing Communication (MC) has an influence on consumers. MC is indented to gain the attention of the consumers, through different means i. e.  © 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US) Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception PR, direct marketing and advertising (New Papers, Radio, T. V and Billboard), (Miller, 1993). â€Å"The promotional tools jointly set out a much stronger message by the advertising agencies showed the improving results. Marketing practitioners introduce the practice of combined a different promotion mean as integrated marketing communication. This practice allows one company’s marketing campaign to be fully integrated that the single message they are trying to send to the public will not be confused by other section by the organization† (Duncan, 2002). According to Yin (2003), Griffin, (2002) Syrett Lammiman, 2003) consumers are set to be fed up with the huge attacks of advertisings and known as generation Y. The impact of generation Y, born between 1977 to 1994 (Paul, 2001), has on the marketing end advertising for the result of the generation Y members place on the importance of the individuality with strong focus. â€Å"The community and networks they forms have there own rules of loyalty violate the same time influencing there brand loyalty. The brand loyalty they might have had as children has fated through adult hood. This mean that companies have to use pecial measure to earn there commitment by using technique that were not necessary for their parents the baby boomers† (Syrett Lammiman, 2003). â€Å"Companies have to take into considerations as well that Gen Y has a â€Å"proof it to me† mentality as it does not welcome commercial messages with open arms (Paul, 2001)† Celebrity endorsers give positiv e payback to companies. The medium most often used to associate them with a chosen product is advertising; where celebrities are known to induce more positive feelings toward ads than non-celebrity endorsers (Atkin Block, 1983; Kamins, 1990; OMahony Meenaghan, 1998). They spin vague products into recognized entities full of personality and appeal (Dickenson, 1996), and help out companies to re-brand and re-position their donations (Louie et al. , 2001). Consumer recall rate is heightened when exposed to celebrity ads (Kamen, Azhari, Kragh, 1975; OMahony Meenaghan, 1998) and they report greater Purchase intentions (Atkin Block, 1983; Friedman Friedman, 1976). But on the other hand all celebrity endorsements will not turn out well for companies. Italian shoemaker Sergio Tacchini was sued by their celebrity endorser, tennis stars Martina Hingis, for what she claimed that of having serious injuries experienced from trying their products. As a result Hingis not only took legal action against the company, but she also said no to use the products and brought bad names for them to the press (Trout, 2007). Celebrity endorsers are paid by a sponsor company for endorsement of their products (see e. g. , Farrell Van Riper, 2008; Sinclair, 2006b; Sirak, 2008). It has been revealed from researches that celebrity endorsers are proved more efficient communicator when they are bjectives (Atkin Block, 1983; Friedman Friedman, the products are promoted by them (Erdogan, 1999). when an attractive and trustworthy celebrity endorser is visible in a ad, the viewers are become more associate positively viewing the promotion ad, the brand, and through this there is aroused in purchasing perceived as trustworthy, and attractive in connecting of 1976; Kamins, 1990;OMahony Meenaghan, 1998). If we have view in accepting the view that celebrities are slotted in firm activities of different kinds, it is doubtful whether the source models are enough. In simply these models do not deal with engagement problem and as a result of which they do not allow for discrepancies in 49 situational reasons which may concern about common result procedures (Ohanian, 1990; Silvera Austad, 2004). For example, consumers are often asked aboutthe celebrity’s trustworthiness in relative of a product but conditions relevant to endorsement activities are held constant so the situational relationship between celebrity and product is hidden (see e. g. , Friedman Friedman, 1976; Friedman Friedman, 1979). Essentially, researchers ask experimental participants to tell them if a celebrity is trustworthy in the things they say about a product, or an expert on it, without informing them if the celebrity uses the product, has experience with the product, are paid to use the product, or are investors in the product. Any one of these additional pieces of information could alter a participants’ opinion (directly or indirectly), regarding the trust worthiness or expertise of a celebrity endorser (Cronley et al, 1999; Robertson Rossiter, 1974, Silvera Austad, 2004). Employment may also be source of conditional information which can obtain an attribution from consumers and in turn affect their attitudes towards brands and ads (Folkes, 1988; Kelly Michela, 1980). By employing with the product endorsement may take a celebrity show more trustworthy and attractive. In any combination of these influence statement of Effectiveness. Understanding the effects on any kind of engagement on Communication. Cronley et al. (1999) find out a muscular relationship between consumers considers a celebrity make use of a product (irrespective of whether they actually do) message usefulness. The result was sustained and extended by Silvera Austad (2004) who explored that a celebrity’s anecdotal character towards a product (i. e. , whether they like or use the product) was as strong of a interpreter of attitude towards the ad as the attractiveness dimension adopt by McGuire (1985) Consumers are normally able to differentiate between an endorser and the product being endorsed (Stem, 1994). Consequently, when negative information is revealed to consumers, their reaction can be different depending on if it is directed towards the celebrity or the product. When the negative information is about the celebrity,  © 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US) Global Journal of Management and Business Research Volume XI Issue VII Version I July 2011 Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception 50 then the reaction usually extends only to the advertisement and inversely, when the information is regarding the company it usually only extends to the brand (Stem, 1994). Friedman Friedman (1979) referred to celebrities as individuals who are known to the public (including actors, sports figures, and entertainers) for their achievements in areas other than that of the product class endorsed. Friedman Friedman (1979) referred to celebrities as individuals known by the public (including actors, sports figures, and entertainers) for their achievements in areas rather than that of the product class endorsed. To clearness in definition is the assumption that in acquiring celebrity one must be firstly achieved something. Compared with celebrities of the past, such as Caesar, Napoleon, Alexander Graham Bell, and Babe Ruth, who earned their celebrity through the positions with notable achievements, present-day celebrities have appeared as exemption from this requirement. Moreover, Turner (2004) deemed they were often a product manufactured by celebrity intermediaries such as agents, publicists, marketing personnel, and promoters (Marshall, 1997; Turner, 2004). Noting this cultural shift, Boorstin (1961) pointed out that achievement was no longer a necessary condition for acquiring celebrity. To him, â€Å"the test of celebrity is nothing more than well-knowness† (p. 59) and a celebrity was simply a â€Å"person who is known for his well-knowness† (p. 57). This distinction allows us to consider individuals such as Paris Hilton, Lindsey Lohan and Osama Bin Laden celebrities while at the same time some politicians, sport stars, members of royalty and religious icons. The celebrities are sharing at least three important aspects; Firstly, in their domain of celebrity, should be well known for well knowing, Secondly, in their field they have to embrace weight over the public, finely, celebrities should belong to all spheres of life, along with politicians, actresses, athletes, successful business leaders, lottery winners, etc. Thus definition of celebrity given below comprises with above mentioned elements. Celebrity: an individual who is recognized by the public for their famous-ness and has an impact on public perception. Celebrities slotted in a range of paid activities working with companies and products. As discussed by Kamen, Azhari, Kragh (1975) that the way of presenting the celebrities can described into four categories: Testimonial, endorser, actor, and spokesman. In a testimonial â€Å"the individual attests to the superiority or excellence of a product or service on the basis of personal experience with it† (p. 7), when an individual is often explicitly coupled with a brand while endorsing the product or a company. When playing the role of an actor â€Å"the individual is merely a character in a dramatic presentation†¦ Endorsement is implicit, but no testimonials are ordinarily rendered† (p. 17). Last but not least the spokesman is characterized as â€Å"the individual repr esenting the company or brand (much like a salesperson), where the role is more official in nature  © 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US) since the spokesperson is authorized to express the position of their sponsor† (p. 17). Each category shares a common denominator: in some form or another celebrity is associated with the brand. Actually, researchers are not drawing a line of differentiation between the different characters played by celebrities and even when they often submit to celebrity spokespersons ( Desarbo Harshman, 1985; Kamins et al. , 1989;Kamins Gupta, 1994) or celebrity endorsers (Erdogan Baker, 1999;Kahle Homer, 1985; Klebba Unger, 1982; Knott St. James, 2004) but mean empirically similar things. This is captured in an of cited definition of celebrity endorser that can be found in McCracken (1989, p. 10):â€Å"any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement. † Moreover, celebrities are discharging role of endorser bonding themselves with various products (Kamen et al. , 1975; Stem, 1994). Similarly, Seno and Lucas (2007, p. 123) state that endorsements can be â€Å"be explicit (â⠂¬Å"I endorse this product†), implicit (â€Å"I use this product†), imperative (â€Å"You should use this product†), or co-presentational (merely appearing with the product)†. The environment of bonding does not give the impression to limiting an advertisement circumstances. Therefore it looks very important in doing definition of celebrity endorser is that they should be in some way associated with a product regardless of either taking the form of advertisement or not and in this way of with the intention of creating some enviable results for the sponsors: Celebrity Endorser: a publicly well known individual associated with a brand/company/product in order to acquiring required outcomes for sponsor. Companies exercise celebrity endorsers due to a number of reasons. As the celebrities accredited the ability of instantly turning an unknown product into a recognized ones with personality and appeal; also engaged in re-branding and re-positioning ((Dickenson, 1996, Louie et al. , 2001). They are exclusively effective in generating PR for a product (Chapman Leask, 2001; Larkin, 2002; Pringle Binet, 2005) driven by the insatiable desire consumers have to learn more about their private lives (Gamson, 1994; Ponce de Leon, 2002). The medium used most oftenly in bonding celebrities with a product is advertising; whereas celebrities are known as one who inducing more positive feelings toward ads than non-celebrity endorsers (Atkin Block, 1983; Kamins, 1990; OMahony Meenaghan, 1998). This in turn may be one explanation for the high recall rates consumers experience when exposed to celebrity ads (Kamen et al. , 1975; OMahony Meenaghan, 1998) and greater reported purchase intentions (Atkin Block, 1983; Friedman Friedman, 1976). The important incidents effecting on consumers may be defined as negative situations with little are no Global Journal of Management and Business Research Volume XI Issue VII Version I July 2011 Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception IV. Elements Conceptual Frame Work Celebrity Marketing Guerrilla Marketing Consumer Perception a) Hypothesis On our literature review we can stand a hypothesis as describe below. Ho: Celebrity marketing has significant effect on consumer perception b) This study is quantitatively based on questionnaire which is constructed to acquire the Methodology answers that is relevant to our study. We are interested in knowing to that in what way the consumers can be induced through guerrilla marketing using one of techniques i. e. celebrity marketing. We are also interested in verifying significant occurrence between guerrilla marketing and consumer precepyion. We use the Likert Scale for our questionnaire from 1 to 5 representing strongly disagree  © 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US) 1 Global Journal of Management and Business Research control at the end of the producer or retailer (Dutton Jackon, 1987; Clark, 1988). The event can be resulted of the bad judgment calls and managerial mistakes during manufacturing (Mitchell, 1986). The faults produced in products by it self (Tory, 1993), the external events such as politics are social attraction which can be proliferated through the world-of-mouth (Hadjikhani, 1996; McClellend, 1961 Goodwin, 1987; Herr et al, 1991 Richins, 1983). in all these cases media played directly or indirectly its role by spreading the news (Bruck, 1989). On the other hand some researches explore the role of media to be a positive one, in communication generally, to be used as the managerial tools in producing a positive change in the perception of the consumers (Kotler, 1996). According to these researches which observe the media played a role in opposite direction i. e. tending to defend the crisis but rather to create it (Raboy Dagenais, 1995; Neuzil Kovarik, 1986). According to Assael, (1992) in the buyer seller relationship media played a dominate role in the field of consumer marketing and this role is unspoken and it is used a positive way the marketing strategy for seller in promoting the positive changing in the consumer perceptions in opening of new research field are successful or unsuccessful marketing (Cronier Mories, 1989; McKenna, 1991). It is also consider that in competency and managerial level can be correlated to the negative perception on the consumers (Everette et al, 1994; Richens, 1983). The environmental incident influenced that is spread by the media and have the casual effect social interactions (Evans et al, 1996). Keane, (1991) points out that in the case of important events the media due to its uncertain authenticity and vague lines of responsibility may influence the position of the companies negatively or positively at the same time. The media can play according to the demand of business players and effect a positive change in the behavior of the society when advertising are relaying news. It can take a neutral position when broadcasting the news are even can create the impression of an impending crises in changing the negative perception the public might have of a company or product into a positive one (Kaptalan-Nagy; Ulrika Ljungren; Amjed Hadjikhane Nazeem Seyed- Muhammad 1998). Besides of focusing on management, some other studies aim to be more exploratory in which there is pay a closer antation in describing the events in the environment and linking them to the change of the perception to consumer by giving a powerful roll by consumer in its attraction in the environment this model kind of model that is centralized the role of media and its influence on consumers, presented by the Tory (1993). On having both kind of media role, as managerial tools and as explanatory, our paper played a neutral role as one of the player for covering events and crisis that will in the end influence the perception of he consumers. Those who have the view in expansion of the this thought and interrelate the disturbed world event to marketing have chose the a different position either static or process prospective, the static prospective concentrate on the decision making level in any given organization along with the studying how timings be a crucial in the dissemination of i nformation in a critical condition (Glazar Weiss, 1993; Smart Vertinsky, 1977). On the other hand for process prospective are forced on the behavioral change of the individual consumer and affect of use being on the consumer (MacCrimmon Wehrung, 1986). In this theory it is further explained in the consumer changing and its ability t be aware and able adapt to a situation applying and a company level and also studied changing to the behavior by discussing the process change form the initial shock to adaptation a consumer might under go and gives the attention to the changes that are the result of turbulent events and having no aim at studying the source of these changes (Kauseman Garman, 1992; Arnlond, 1980). Volume XI Issue VII Version I July 2011 51 Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception o strongly agree. We select the random sample from population of 300 graduate and post graduate students from different colleges and universities in Islamabad, from this population we select 60 responses, 10 respondent could not fill the questionnaire completely 5 more discarded from different ground. July 2011 c) Statistical Instrument We use the simple regression model. We regress the celebrity marketing of which has the construct s trustworthiness and attractiveness of as an independent co-efficient with dependent co-efficient which is consumer perception. We check the significance of trust worthiness comprises of four to five question similarly we also check our construct on attractiveness of the celebrity in the advertisement also four to five questions included our questionnaire. We also check the dependency of the consumer perception on celebrity marketing which is our main goal. d) Statistical Analysis Model 1 R . 945a Model Summary R Square Adjusted R Square . 893 . 865 Std. Error Estimate . 29696 of the 52 Volume XI Issue VII Version I We regress consumer perception on celebrity marketing, the result are showing in table 1. According to the table 1 we find that the consumer perception has Table 1 strong significantly effected by the celebrity marketing which has maximum value which is 0. 945. Global Journal of Management and Business Research Report Celebrity endorsement in cellular ads has an influence on my perceptions Mean N Std. Deviation 3. 0000 4 . 00000 Strongly Disagree 3. 5000 8 . 53452 Disagree 21 . 66904 Neutral 2. 9524 Agree 17 . 50000 4. 0000 Strongly agree 4. 5000 10 . 52705 Total 3. 5833 60 . 80867 Table 2. It is also clear from the Table 2 that the questions in answering strongly gree and agree have the mean values greater than 3, this prove our hypothesis that consumer perception has strongly significant effect by the celebrity marketing. V. VI. Conclusion Discussion The analytic framework confirms the relationship between guerrilla marketing and consumer perception with respect of celebrity marketing. On having careful interpretation of sample. As illustrated by the table no. The Q1, Q 2, Q3 which explain the significant effect between trustworthiness which is facet of celebrity marketing and preference, belief and brand, which are the facet of this effect is to the extent of . 07. Which is calculated by using statistical two way t-test? This shows the positive relationship between these factors. Similarly Question Nos. 4, 5, 8,10,11,12 of our questionnaire shows the negative relationship with the consumer perception. Whereas Question Nos. 6, 7 and 9 has also shows positive relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness and consume perception This study shows the trustworthiness and attractiveness as potential strategies to enhancing consumer percept in to facilitate purchased behavior. 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US) The aim of the research was to identify the association of the celebrity endorsement on the consumer perception. This was studied by the reviewing of literature of both celebrity endearment and the consumer perception dependent upon the quest ionnaire distributing among the target population, we sure the collectively positive influence on the consumer perception. Recognizing the right celebrity endorser is one of the essential discussions for a brand which is engaged to endorse. Celebrities can be beneficiaries from this view that endorsement as means of linking there brand for a product or corporate brand and take into consideration the potential positive and negative effect that may have on there on image and brand equity (Elina Halonen-Knight Leila Hurmerinta, 2010). a) This study attempt to discover the positive relation between Guerilla Marketing and the consumer perception, by using the celebrities and endorser in cellular sector of Pakistan. To generalize the result of this study is limited in using the celebrities’ endorsement in a cultural back ground. Second research need to be conducted using the other technique stealth marketing Limitation of the study Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception which is not in practices in Pakistan regarding t cellular industry. References References Referencias 1. 2. Duncan, T. (2002). IMC-Using Advertising and Promotion to Build Brand. McGraw-Hill, New York Fernando, A. (2004). Creating Buzz: New Media Tactics Have Changed the PR and Advertising Game. Communication World. San Francisco: Nov/Dec Vol, 21, (pg. 10-11) Glazer, R. and Weiss, A. M. 1993, Marketing in Turbulent Process and the Time-Sensitivity of Information. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. XXX, November, pp. 509-521 Environment, Decision Goodwin, C. , 1987, A Social- Influence Theory of Consumer Perception Cooperation, Advance. Consumer Research, 14, pp. 387-381. Griffin, C. (2002). Identity check, sporting Goods Business, San Francisco: Sep, Vol. 35,pg. 20. † Glazer, R. and Weiss, A. M. , 1993Marketing in Turbul ent Environments, Decision Process and Time- Sensitivity of Information, Journal of Marketing Research Vol. XXX November, pp. 509-521 Kotler, P. , 1996, Principles of Marketing, London, Prentice-Hall international Editions. Kaikati, A. M Kiakati, J. G. (2004). Stealth Marketing: How to Reach Customers Surreptitiously. California Management Review, Berkeley: Vol. 46, No. 4. Mitchell, T. H. , 1986, Coping with a Corporate Crises. Condition Business Review, 13, 3pp. 17-20 MacCrimmon, K R, and Wehrung, D. A. , 1986 Taking Crisis, The Management of uncertainty, New York, Free Press. Miller, J. (1993). Marketing Communication. Cornell Hotal and Restaurant Administration (pg 48-53). Paul, P. (2001). Getting inside Gen Y. Sep, Vol. 23, (pg, 42-49). Peterson, R. A. and Wlison,W. R. ,1992 Measuring Customer Satisfaction: Fact and Artifact Journal of the Academy of Marketing science, Winter, Vol. 20, No. 1,pp. 61-72. Raboy, M. and Dagenais, B. , 1995, Media, Crises and Democracy, Mass Communication and the Disruption of Social order. Stage, London. Tory, C. L. , 1993, Consumer Environmental Consciousness: A Conceptual Framework and Exploratory Investigation. Vol. 4, p. 106-114 Vranica, S. 2005). Getting Buzz Marketers to Fess up. Wall Stress Journal. New York: feb9, pg. B. 9 Yin, S. (2003). Degree of Challenge. May, Vol. 25. pg. 20 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.  © 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US) Global Journal of Management and Business Research Volume XI Issue VII Version I 4. July 2011 53 Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception Volume XI Issue VII Version I July 2011 54 This page is intentionally left bl ank Global Journal of Management and Business Research  © 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Pros and cons of Lithuanias integration to the EU Essay Example

Pros and cons of Lithuanias integration to the EU Essay In 1999 Lithuania was invited to negotiate for the EU membership. Lithuania was recognized as an equal partner , thus the door to the EU, one of the most powerful political and economical unions, was opened. Although Lithuania strives to join the EU structures and the markets of the West economy, controversies surrounding the necessity of Lithuanias integration to the EU have reached its peak of debates. This question can be solved considering the main economical problems of Lithuania and the ways to solve them. They can be defined as relations with Russia, problematic situation in agricultural sector , fear to be inadequate to compete with the West. The first problem of Lithuania is relations with Russia. In spite of increased integration with the EU, Russia remains Lithuanias main trading partner. The crisis could therefore worsen the trade balance and slow down growth in the industrial sectors exporting to Russia. Even if political aspects of these relations the imperialist ambitions of Russia, the fluctuation of democracy and political stability could be denied, Lithuania still should admit that the crisis of Russia proved how it is ruinous to have affairs with such unforeseen partner. So, in comparison with Russia, the EU remains progressive and successful economical union that guarantees for each member their place in European market. The second reason of integrations to the EU enmity is problematic situation in agricultural sector. We will write a custom essay sample on Pros and cons of Lithuanias integration to the EU specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Pros and cons of Lithuanias integration to the EU specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Pros and cons of Lithuanias integration to the EU specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In fact, the majority of farmers are still incapable to compete, their labour productivity is low, the cost price is high. Lithuania still cannot implement and enforce the Community veterinary and sanitary requirements and upgrade the establishments to meet Community standarts. In addition, little progress is made in land reform and privatisation. Delays in land titling have seriously constrained the development of a proper land market. Further restructuring is needed for a more efficient and viable farming sector. On the other hand, if Lithuania does not join the EU, the number of farmers will have to decrease anyway. However, Lithuania will have to solve the problems of farmers employment and competition. So, in this case the question , whether Lithuania is able to solve it with its own means and to cope with all problems alone, can be derived. The EU allies claim that the EU subsidies more means than Lithuania will have to contribute to the EU budget. In conclusion, despite the EU promises to solve such problems of its future members, the agricultural sector remains the key area, which Lithuania has to improve itself. The third and final problem of Lithuania to join the EU is inadequacy to compete with the West. Some interest groups have already felt problems that are waiting after Lithuanias integration to the EU. The enterprises that at the moment get the financial support of the state, will incur losses. The enterprises trading with Russia also will incur losses , because the import barriers will increase. On the other hand, the barriers joining the common EU interior market will be abolished. According to some of the EU allies, although Lithuanias participation in the common EU market will increase competition, this will induce business and enterprises to reformation, cause the maintenance of Lithuanias economy and increase the level of livelihood. The best thing that the membership can offer to Lithuania is the restriction of bureaucracy in business sector and the concession of more freedoms and opportunities for initiative businessmen. In conclusion, despite the fact that the future membership to the EU will cause for Lithuania competitive pressure and it will condemn Lithuania to reform and revive its industry and agriculture, but in the long period the membership to the EU should guarantee for Lithuania both economical and financial stability. Summing all pros and cons in controversies surrounding Lithuanias integration to the EU, it is useful to remind that Lithuanias integration is delayed, because such state as Lithuania presents many problems. The most important of them are difficult relations with Russia, problems in agricultural sector and inadequacy to compete with the West. To decide whether such state as Lithuania has to join the EU, is a very debatable question. Indeed, the fact that integration causes not only positive, but also negative effect propose a conclusion that Lithuania, in comparison with other stronger states, still should wait.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Car polltion UK essays

Car polltion UK essays Because of environmental degradation cars should be taxed at a higher rate and petrol prices doubled to deter the use of cars. Cars have how become a very important part in todays society as it is the most convenient way to travel in todays world it has brought us flexibility, freedom and mobility but still there are some disadvantages of using the car the main one being the pollution caused to the environment. This is why the government is trying to implement a number of different plans to combat the pollution caused by cars and also reduce the use of cars as many roads have just become to congested. If people are be deterred from using their cars there has to be a very good and reliable form of transport that can be used instead of the car this is most likely to be in the form of public transport. The transport system would have to be nearly as much of a convenience as the car. At the present time the public transport system is not quite good enough for cars to be not used by people. Raising tax and petrol prices of cars, would not necessarily deter the use of cars as in the last two years taxes have risen and petrol prices have gone up by about twenty five percent. Even though of this increase there are more cars now on the road than there were two years ago. But even with the increasing costs of owning a car there is an ever-increasing amount of more and more cars on the road today. The proof of this can be seen as Britain is one the worlds highest priced countries in which to by petrol and has the highest priced petrol than anywhere else in Europe even with the high prices p eople still seem to want to drive cars. Then in some parts of the country where there is no other means of transport or where there is such little public transport that it is practically non existent. These people are dependent on the use of cars and have no other real choice but to use their cars as they have no other means of ...